Vision and Eye Health

The National Center for Children’s Vision and Eye Health at Prevent Blindness has partnered with the NASN to provide national guidance for school nurses and others involved in front-line vision screening. The goal is to standardize approaches to vision health, facilitate follow-up eye care for students who do not pass vision screening, provide family/caregiver-friendly educational information, and consult with leading pediatric eye care providers to promote best practices.

The content on this page is organized according to the 12 Components of a Strong Vision Health System of Care.  

Background

Vision impairments in children are common and uncorrected vision problems can impair child development, lead to behavior problems in the classroom, interfere with early literacy and learning, and lead to permanent vision loss.i,ii,iii,iv,v Early detection and treatment are critical.vi,vii,viii,ix,x Additionally, visual functioning is a strong predictor of academic performance in school-age children,xi,xii and vision disorders of childhood may continue to affect health and well-being throughout the adult years.xiii

With the focus on prevention, the Institute of Medicine (IOM) report, The Future of Nursing: Leading Change, Advancing Health Report Recommendations (2010), directs registered nurses to provide care within the full scope of their license. A comprehensive vision health program is a school nurse intervention that makes a significant measurable difference in a student’s overall health and learning.

12 Components of a Strong Vision Health System of Care

1. Family Education

All parents/caregivers should receive culturally competent educational materials with appropriate reading levels. The materials explain why scheduling and attending an eye exam when a student does not pass his/her vision screening is important for good vision now and in the future, and the increased risk for vision problems in defined high-risk populations.

Vision and Eye Health Glossary

Fact Sheets:

Vision Screening is Key to Healthy Development!  [ Spanish ] [ Chinese ]

Focus on Eye Health and Culturally Diverse Populations

Signs of Possible Eye Trouble in Children [ Spanish ]

The Affordable Care Act and Your Child’s Eyes  [ Spanish ]

Star Pupils Eye Health and Safety Curriculum (grades K-2, 3-5, and 6-8)

Vision screening and eye health posters

Video: Parent discussing the importance of vision screening

2. Comprehensive Communication/Approval Process

Facilitate parents’/caretakers’ completing and signing a HIPAA/FERPA-compliant release permitting exchange of vision screening and eye examination information among appropriate healthcare providers to support reciprocal access to and follow-up from eye care. This release will help school nurses ensure vision treatment plans are implemented at school and to talk to eye care providers when treatment plans are unclear.

Referral for an Eye Examination letter with release of information [Spanish]

3. Vision Screening Tools and Procedures

Screen student’s vision with age-appropriate, evidence-based tools and procedures, including optotypes (symbols, letters, or numbers) and/or instruments.

Presentation: Why Do We Screen Vision in Young Children  

Common Vision Terms Defined

ABCs Observation of Possible Vision Problems (2015)

Ages at Which Vision Screening Should Occur (2017)

Characteristics of tests of recognition of visual acuity for screening the vision of children age 3 through 5 years (36 to <72 months) (2017) 

Tips for Appropriate Eye Chart Design (2017)

Children’s Vision Screening Table (2017)

Referral Criteria (2016)

Prevent Blindness Position Statement on School-aged Vision Screening and Eye Health Programs (2015). 

For school nurses working with early childhood programs, such as Early Head Start: Eight Key Vision Development Milestones to Monitor From Birth to First Birthday

4. Vision Health for Children with Special Healthcare Needs (CSHCN)

Implementing policies and procedures for referral and support for visual health of children with special healthcare needs.

Children Who Should Bypass Vision Screening for an Eye Examination (2016)

Vision Health for Children on the Autism Spectrum (2013)

Children with ADHD at Higher Risk for Vision Disorders (2016)

5. Standardized Approach for Re-Screening

Establish standards for the vision health program that directs the re-screening or referral of difficult-to-screen (untestable or unable) children.

Flowchart for Children Who Receive a Vision Screening (2014)

Referral for an Eye Examination letter with release of information [ Spanish ]

6. Comprehensive Vision Screening Results

Provide parents/caregivers with vision screening results in easy-to-understand language, which respects cultural and literacy needs and provides clearly defined next steps and timelines. Results should be communicated in writing and verbally; parents/caregivers may lack time to review all backpack documents.

Mattey, B., Zein, W.M., O’Malley, D., & Naron, C. (2013). Preventing vision loss among students through eye safety and early detection . NASN School Nurse, 28(5), 233-236. doi:10.1177/1942602X13497062. 

Family Fact Sheet on Children’s Vision (2013) [ English ] [ Spanish ] [ Chinese ]

7. Systemized Approach to Follow-Up

Implement/facilitate a follow-up system with parents/caregivers following a failed vision screening, which includes creating a system to monitor whether eye exams occurred and identifying barriers to follow-up eye care and ways to overcome those barriers, such as lack of transportation or assistance with paying the cost of an eye exam.

Marsh-Tootle, W.L., Russ, S.A., & Repka, M.X. (2015). Vision and eye health in children 36 to <72 months: Proposed data definitions. Optometry and Vision Science, 92(1), 17-23. doi: 1040- 5488/15/9201- 0017/0 17Y23. Retrieved from https://www.researchgate.net/publication/270663059_Vision_and_Eye_Health_in_Children_36_to_72_Months

Hartmann, E.E., Block, S.S., & Wallace, D.K. (2015). Vision and eye health in children 36 to 72 months: Proposed data system. Optometry and Vision Science, 92(1), 24-30. doi: 1040-5488/15/9201-0024/0. Retrieved from https://www.healthit.gov/sites/default/files/comments_upload/vision_and_eye_health_in_children_36_to_72.98810.pdf

See Jane See! Parental Advice for Healthy Vision in Kids (2016)

8. Resources for Eye Care

Link parents/caregivers with resources for eye care and seek out eye care providers who specialize in the care and treatment of young children.

VSP Sight for Students Program

Financial Assistance Information  (2014) [ Spanish ]

Find an eye care provider:

American Academy of Ophthalmology

American Optometric Association

American Association for Pediatric Ophthalmology and Strabismus

College of Optometrists in Vision Development

9. Collect Eye Exam Results

Collect eye exam results to help ensure treatment plans are implemented at school and share treatment plans with teachers, who may need to make classrooms accommodations. 

10. Effective Communication with the Medical Home

Keep the medical home informed by sending a copy of eye exam results to the child’s primary care provider. 

The Role of the Medical Home in Vision and Eye Health

11. Adherence to Treatment

Have a process in place to facilitate the eye care treatment plan prescribed for a student. For example, if a student with patching for amblyopia is required to patch at school, you need to know when and duration. Share this information with the student's teacher(s). 

The Eyes that Thrive program to support vision treatment adherence in the classroom.

Information to share with parents/caregivers about their role as part of the eye care health team:

Eye Patch Choices

The Eye Patch Club – Family amblyopia treatment adherence program

12. Annual Vision Health Program Evaluation

Evaluating the vision health program annually includes comparing screening and eye examination results to determine whether over-referrals are excessive and screening tools and/or procedures should be reviewed.

Annual Vision Health Program Evaluation Checklist (2014)

References

Atkinson, J., Anker, S., Nardini, M., Braddick, O., Hughes, C., Rae, S., Wattam-Bell, J., & Atkinson, S. (2002). Infant vision screening predicts failures on motor and cognitive tests up to school age. Strabismus, 10(3), 187–198. Retrieved from http://lynnhellerstein.com/wp-content/uploads/2013/03/Infant-vision-screening-predicts-failures.pdf

Holmes, J.M., Lazar, E.L., Melia, B.M., Astle, W.F., Dagi, L.R., Donahue, S.P., Weise, K.K. (2011). Effect of age on response to amblyopia treatment in children. Archives of Ophthalmology, 129(11), 1451-1457. doi: 10.1001/archophthalmol.2011.179. Retrieved from http://archopht.jamanetwork.com/article.aspx?articleid=1106477

Ibironke, J.O., Friedman, D.S., Repka, M.X., Katz, J., Giordano, L., Hawse, P., & Tielsch, J.M. (2011). Child development and refractive errors in preschool children. Optometry & Vision Science, 88(2), 181-187. doi:10.1097/OPX.0b013e318204509b. Retrieved from http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3079532/pdf/nihms259842.pdf

Roch-Levecq, A.C., Brody, B.L., Thomas, R.G., Brown, S.L. (2008). Ametropia, preschoolers' cognitive abilities, and effects of spectacle correction. Archives of Ophthalmology, 126(2), 252- 258. doi: 10.1001/archophthalmol.2007.36. Retrieved from http://archopht.jamanetwork.com/article.aspx?articleid=420351

U.S. Preventive Services Task Force. (2004). Screening for visual impairment in children younger than age 5 years: An update of the evidence from randomized controlled trials, 1999-2003. Annals of Family Medicine, 2(3), 263-266. doi: 10.1370/afm.193. Retrieved from http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1466679/

Other Resources

Challenges with Commonly Used Tests of Visual Acuity (Eye Charts) for Optotype-Based Screening

Building a Strong Vision Health System of Care: Components and Resources . An educational presentation from the Year of Children’s Vision initiative.

Lions Clubs Assistance Requests

Vision Screening Overview from the American Association for Pediatric Ophthalmology and Strabismus

Vision Screening Tutorial from the American Association for Pediatric Ophthalmology and Strabismus

Pink Eye Resources from American Academy of Ophthalmology:

8.5x14" poster
11x17" poster
Eye Smart resources

Nottingham Chaplin, P.K., Ramsey, J.E., & Baldonado, K. (2014). Children’s vision health: How to create a strong vision health system of care . Exchange, 36(3), 36-41. https://www.childcareexchange.com/catalog/product/217-may-june-2014/4321700/ [fee applies]

Nottingham Chaplin, P. K., Ramsey, J. E., & Baldonado, K. (2014). Children who should bypass vision screening and go directly to eye exam. Exchange, 36(3), 38.

Nottingham Chaplin, P.K. & Bradford, G.E. (2011). A historical review of distance vision screening eye charts: What to toss and what to keep, and what to replace .  NASN School Nurse, 26(4), 221-222. doi: 10.1177/1942602X11411094   

Cotter, S.A., Cyert, L.A., Miller, J.M., & Quinn, G.E. (2015). Vision Screening for Children 36 to <72 Months: Recommended Practices. Optometry and Vision Science, 92(1), 6-16. doi: 1040- 5488/15/9201- 0006/0. Retrieved from http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4274336/pdf/opx-92-06.pdf

Nottingham Chaplin, P. K., Baldonado, K., Hutchinson, A., & Moore, B. (2015). Vision and eye health: Moving into the digital age with instrument-based vision screening . NASN School Nurse, 30(3), 154-60. doi: 10.1177/1942602X15581054 

Donahue, S.P., Baker, C.N., Committee on Practice and Ambulatory Medicine, Section on Ophthalmology, American Association of Certified Orthoptists, American Association for Pediatric Ophthalmology and Strabismus, American Academy of Ophthalmology (2016). Procedures for the evaluation of the visual system by pediatricians. Pediatrics, 137(1), e20153597. Retrieved from http://pediatrics.aappublications.org/content/pediatrics/early/2015/12/07/peds.2015-3597.full.pdf; [Note, this citation contains preferred practices for vision screening in the clinical setting, not the educational setting. Use caution when deciding to use these recommendations in a non-clinical setting.] 

National Association of School Nurses logo  National Center for Children's Vision and Eye Health at Prevent Blindness logo

Special thanks and appreciation to P. Kay Nottingham Chaplin, EdD, Kira Baldonado and Prevent Blindness through the National Center for Children’s Vision and Eye Health.

Technical Assistance available from the National Center for Children’s Vision and Eye Health at Prevent Blindness; 211 W. Wacker Dr.; Suite 1700 Chicago, IL 60606; 312-363-6038; kbaldonado@preventblindness.org

Background Information Citations

iCollins, M. E., Mudie, L. I., Inns, A. J., & Repka, M. X. (2017). Overview of reading development and assessments for the pediatric ophthalmologist. Advance online publication. Journal of AAPOS. doi:10.1016/j.jaapos.2017.06.017

iiNational Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine (2016). Making eye health a population health imperative: Vision for tomorrow. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. Retrieved from http://www.nationalacademies.org/hmd/Reports/2016/making-eye-health-a-population-health-imperative-vision-for-tomorrow.aspx

iiiPeterseim, M. M., Papa, C. E., Parades, C., Davidson, J., Sturges, A., Oslin, C., Merritt, I., & Morrison, M. (2015). Combining automated vision screening with on-site examinations in 23 schools: ReFocus on Children Program 2012 to 2013. Journal of Pediatric Ophthalmology & Strabismus, 52(1), 20-24.

ivRuderman, M. (2016). Children’s vision and eye health: A snapshot of current national issues. Chicago, IL: National Center for Children’s Vision and Eye Health at Prevent Blindness. Retrieved from https://nationalcenter.preventblindness.org/sites/default/files/national/documents/Children%27s_Vision_Chartbook.pdf

vVIP-HIP Study Group, Kulp, M. T., Ciner, E., Maguire, M., Moore, B., Pentimonti, J., . . . Ying, G. (2016). Uncorrected hyperopia and preschool early literacy: Results of the Vision in Preschoolers – Hyperopia In Preschoolers (VIP-HIP) Study. Ophthalmology, 123(4), 681-689.

viWen G, McKean-Cowdin R, Varma R, et al. (2011) General Health-Related Quality of Life in Preschool Children with Strabismus or Amblyopia. Ophthalmology, 2011;118(3):574-580.

viiRoche-Levecq A, Brody BL, Thomas RG, Brown SI. (2008) Ametropia, Preschoolers’ Cognitive Abilities, and Effects of Spectacle Correction. Archives of Ophthalmology, 2008;126(2):252-258.

viiiAtkinson J, Anker S, Nardini M, et al. (2002) Infant Vision Screening Predicts Failures on Motor and Cognitive Tests up to School Age. Strabismus, 2002;10(3);187-198.

ixIbironke JO, Friedman DS, Repka MX, et al. Child Development and Refractive Errors in Preschool Children. (2011) Optometry and Vision Science, 2011;88(2):181-187.

xJonas, D. E., Amick, H. R., Wallace, I. F., Feltner, C., Vander Schaaf, E. B., Brown, C. L., & Baker, C. (2017). Vision screening in children ages 6 months to 5 years: Evidence report and systematic review for US Preventive Services Task Force. Evidence Synthesis No. 153. AHRQ Publication No. 17-05228-EF-1. Rockville, MD: Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality. Retrieved from https://www.google.com/url?sa=t&rct=j&q=&esrc=s&source=web&cd=1&cad=rja&uact=8&ved=0ahUKEwiN4qGuk6_WAhXTZiYKHTH5CcEQFggoMAA&url=https%3A%2F%2Fwww.uspreventiveservicestaskforce.org%2FHome%2FGetFile%2F1%2F16629%2FChild%2520Vision%2520Draft%2520ER_Assembled%2Fpdf&usg=AFQjCNFhvDqZJzop6lwLLSCo_-lGn6jfgw

xiMaples WC. Visual Factors That Significantly Impact Academic Performance. Optometry, 2003;74(1):35-49.

xiiBasch CE. Vision and the Achievement Gap among Urban Minority Youth. Journal of School Health, 2011;81(10);599-605.

xiiiDavidon S, Quinn GE. The Impact of Pediatric Vision Disorders in Adulthood. Pediatrics, 2011;127(2):334-339.

Page last updated December 2017.